Thursday, December 10, 2015

Protein Basics

THE FIRST ELEMENT......PROTEIN

This article was originally published in Parent Circle magazine, June 2013. I've reproduced it here as first written. The only thing that I would alter is the dairy advice. Research now shows that organic fresh dairy products are the best form in which to consume this food group. Raw, unpasteurized (heated breastmilk too loses half of it's nutritional value) organic milk is best especially for children...if you choose to give dairy. I've previously written on Plant vs Animal Protein  ...please read both for a full perspective on Protein.

     Discovered in the 1800's by a chemist named Mulder, Proteins are still the most researched biological molecules even today. The human body contains around 50, 000 different proteins, each with their unique, critical functions to perform. 

     Proteins are made up of building blocks called 'Amino Acids'. There are 20 different amino acids present in human proteins and of these, 9 are called essential. When you hear this term applied to any nutrient, it means that the body is not capable of deriving or producing this compound itself. 'Essential' means that the particular nutrient needs to be derived from food.

     Amino acids are made up of 4 basic elements  Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen. These are linked together in different ways and with side elements or molecules to give each acid their unique character and function. Amino acids are also the products of protein digestion by our gut. They are absorbed into the blood stream and form an 'amino acid pool' which is like a bank account from which the body withdraws what it needs to reconstruct different types of proteins. 

     Once proteins from food are absorbed, they don't last very long in the body.... some 3 to  5 hours. This is why we need to keep consuming different protein containing foods on a daily basis, replenishing this stock. The body functions wonderfully to utilize these amino acids within this short time. If there is an additional demand, say due to moderate physical activity, the body steps up protein production and increases it's storage in our muscles. Building of muscle mass (lean body mass) is a desirable process.

     Proteins figure in every bodily process...from formation of skin, hair and nails to making sure each cell in your body receives a supply of oxygen to lifting your little finger. They make up hormones, enzymes, genetic material, blood, bone marrow and the list goes on. They are especially critical in phases of life where growth takes place - childhood, adolescence, pregnancy and lactation. As we age, we lose more protein, therefore we need to focus even more on consumption to replenish our protein stores. 

     Infancy, childhood and adolescence are high-growth phases during which protein plays a huge role. If there is any consistent deficit in dietary protein intake at these times, the consequences can last a lifetime!

If your child's diet falls short of the first element, the following could result:

- Fatigue
- Decreased muscle mass and in severe cases - muscle wasting
- Failure to thrive, poor growth
- Irritability
- Changes in nails, skin and hair colour
- Anemia
- Frequent severe infections due to lowered immunity
- Constipation
- Slow healing of wounds
- Sleep problems

     In extreme protein deficiency, the respiratory system and heart muscles are weakened - this is seen mostly in children from impoverished families.

FOOD SOURCES can be of 2 types – Animal and Plant.....

     There is a scoring for protein called Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS). Based on this, protein derived from animal sources scores higher than those from plants. Therefore, it was inferred that animal protein is of higher quality. This information has been so widely spread but is not true.

     Protein from animal sources (meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk and it's products) has been linked to increased risk for many disorders. Increased animal protein consumption acidifies the blood necessitating withdrawal of calcium and other salts from your bones to neutralize it. This process leads to loss of bone mass and increased risk of osteoporosis as well as erosion of teeth. There are studies now highlighting the influence of animal protein isolates on activating cancer cells. It is also associated with lowered age of puberty in girls. Excessive animal protein intake is a burden on the kidneys which have to excrete it and could damage these organs.

     But we need to view protein more as a 'food package'. Proteins do not naturally occur in isolation. Most sources of animal proteins also give you saturated fat / cholesterol, almost no fibre and not too many vitamins. So increasing your protein intake from animal sources increases your risk for cancer, diabetes and heart disease among others.

      Have you ever been asked, as a vegetarian, how you get enough protein? The meat and dairy industries in the US are said to have links with politicians responsible for food related policy making and are a powerful lobby in Washington. These industries, perceiving vegetarianism to be a threat in the seventies, spread rumours and 'conducted studies' purportedly showing that a vegetarian diet ‘lacked sufficient protein’, leading to protein deficiency. This misinformation campaign was so successful that even in India, meat eaters often ask their vegetarian friends how they manage to get their protein. In fact, especially in North India, there is still a common belief that only meat, egg and dairy consumption makes you 'strong and healthy’.

     Plant protein for years has been sidelined as an 'incomplete protein' source simply because several plant foods are missing one or more amino acids. Also, these don't fare as well in their PDCAAS scores. 80 – 100% of animal proteins are absorbed by the digestive system but absorption isn't that much less for plant proteins – it falls in the range of 75 – 90%. Recently, plant proteins have been getting lots of good press because their 'food package' is much healthier. When you consume this type, you are also getting fibre, phytochemicals, vitamins and minerals which build wellness and are as effective in replenishing the amino acid pool as animal proteins.

     PLANT PROTEIN is finally being acknowledged as high quality protein by the scientific community.  This comes after many studies on vegetarians and vegans. Anyone eating whole and largely unprocessed vegetarian food, so long as he consumes a couple or more protein-rich plant foods in a day, will get more than sufficient protein for his daily requirement. This holds good even for an athlete or body-builder. Such people who consume largely plant proteins are found to have lower rates of chronic disease, are more active, more likely to be at their ideal body weight and 'feel healthier' in general.

     This doesn’t mean you need to stop eating meat, dairy or eggs. In India, most people don’t eat meat every day anyway (like they do in the west). Just ensure that you cook meat healthily with less fat / oil, choose white meat over red meat and leave out the yolk more than half the time when consuming eggs.
     Also, most people (even vegetarians) in India consume dairy products like milk, curd, paneer and cheese. These add to the already abundant protein present in a plant - based diet. Just ensure dairy products are low fat to make it a healthy 'food package'. The whole family benefits from eating this way, not just the children.

     These are high protein vegetable foods –------>  dals, pulses, legumes, sprouts, nuts, seeds and green leafy veggies like agathi, rajakeerai, kuppakeerai, sembu ilaigal (colocasia leaves), curry leaves, drumstick leaves and manthakkali keerai. (Of course, to get the benefit of the protein in greens, you have to consume a large quantity). Cereal grains like oats, whole wheat and whole rice are great sources too. Refining of cereal grains (white rice / maida) can result in at least 18 – 25%  loss of valuable protein from the grain. High protein sources which are now popular in India are nuts, seeds, whole grams and last but  not least Quinoa (originally from South America).

PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTATION

     If we consume a variety of healthy, whole and natural foods in a day, we will get enough protein. There are, however, specific circumstances under which extra protein may be required, for example …. endurance athletes, undernourished children, people with chronic disease, injury, infection or diabetes. In such cases, if deemed necessary, a safe protein supplement should be taken as per the doctor's or nutritionist's recommendation. Avoid taking more than prescribed.

     Protein is a big business. Avoid any brand containing the word ‘grow’, ‘muscle building’, ‘mass’, etc even if you are into hardcore strength training. If your doctor prescribes it – follow the same rule and take it for the least possible duration. Just because you train at a gym doesn't mean you need protein supplements. Be responsible for eating a healthy, well balanced diet to meet your daily requirement.

The National Institute of Nutrition states that the recommended dietary protein allowance for Indians is:

Age Group
Protein requirement (gram / kg of body weight)
Infants (0-1yr)
1.4 – 1.6
Children (1 – 10 yrs)
 1.2 – 1.4
Adolescents
1.1 – 1.2
Adults
 0.8 – 1
Pregnancy - 1st trimester
Adult allowance plus an additional 1 gram per day
2nd trimester
Adult allowance plus an
additional 7 grams per day
3rd trimester
Adult allowance plus an
additional 20 grams per day
Lactation
Adult allowance plus an
additional 20 grams per day
 

If you eat all the foods recommended daily and at least 1 or 2 servings of foods recommended weekly, you will be getting around 70 g of protein or more per day! There is actually a little more coming in from your veggie intake. So don't panic that you may be deficient in protein.....this is proof that a wholesome, largely plant-based diet more than satisfies an average Indian's daily requirement for protein. For your children, based on their food intake capacity, they too are consuming more than enough protein for their body weight. Just ensure these basic food groups are a part of their diet.

Food (Protein Source)
Quantity per serving (g or ml)
Protein content per serving (g)
Recommended number of servings
 Cereal Grains (rice, wheat, millets, oats, etc)
1 roti / 1 idli / 1 dosa / 100 g cooked rice or millet
1.6 - 2
7-10 per day
Dals, pulses and legumes
100 g, soaked or cooked
6.4
3 - 4 per day
Milk and Curd (low fat)
200 ml
6.4
3 - 4 per day
Nuts and seeds
30 g
4.8 – 7.5
1 per day
Sprouts
100 g, raw or steamed
4
3 - 4 per week
Paneer and cheese
25 - 30 g
5
2 per week
Egg White
35 g (1, medium)
6.4
2 – 3 per week
Chicken / Poultry
24 g
6.4
1 - 2 per week
Fish
30 g
6.4
1 – 2 per week
Unsweetened Soymilk
200 ml
5.8
1 – 2 per fortnight
Plain tofu (not fried)
60 g
6.4
1 – 2 per fortnight
Soybean
100 g, cooked
10
1 - 2 per fortnight
Quinoa
100 g, cooked
4.3
1 – 2 per fortnight
Mutton / Red meat
30 – 35 g
6.4
1 per 3 or 4 weeks




A Drop of Golden Sun

      When I was studying nutrition over a decade ago, we learnt that the functioning of D was to support the absorption and action of Calcium in it's various roles. The past decade has seen an impressive amount of research into this compound mainly because it seems to have impacts on the body beyond that of just an ordinary vitamin. Vitamin D is now being referred to as a hormone since it is manufactured in the body from sunlight.

     This is due to the fact that Vitamin D Receptors (molecules necessary for it's entry into cells) are located in over 30 different tissues in our body! This means that we have probably just hit the tip of the iceberg in determining what roles it really plays in our bodies.

     Evidence shows that maintaining adequate levels of vitamin D during pregnancy, nursing, infancy and childhood lowers risk of the child developing Type 1 Diabetes and other auto-immune disorders. Vitamin D is required for bone and teeth mineralization, optimal functioning of blood, acid base balance, essential for thyroid hormone action, maintenance of muscle strength, brain development in children, health of our immune system, optimal functioning of cardiovascular and respiratory systems, insulin production / regulation and involvement in cell multiplication at a genetic level. This is what science is exploring so far......there are still miles to go.

What's worrying is that in sunshine-rich India, over 40 % of Indians are estimated to be D-ficient....

Some of the risk factors:

-        Not getting at least 15 minutes of direct sun exposure daily, remaining indoors for most of the sunlit hours
-        Covering up and applying sunscreen at all times when in the sun
-        Having a darker complexion (more melanin, more time it takes for skin to produce Vit D)
-        Being older than 50 years of age (Capacity to produce Vit D from sunshine is reduced as one ages)
-        Being obese or even just overweight (more fat tissue under skin reduces Vit D production)
-        High pollution levels in your city (smog reduces penetration of UV B rays)
-        Being on a severe low fat diet

Some of the disease risks raised by D-ficiency....

-  Rickets – a bone mineralization disorder seen in children, once rare, again on the rise. The condition is called osteomalacia if present in adults
 - Hypertension, sudden death from heart attack and stroke
 - Multiple Sclerosis, Type 1 Diabetes, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Inflammatory Bowel Disease and other auto-immune disorders in children and adults
 - Asthma and respiratory infections especially in children
 - Several types of Cancers.
- Decreased thyroid function leading to goitre

             The risk factors are so much the norm in our daily lives and so are the consequences. Just evaluate your own risk to see where you stand. You could be dealing with some of the possible consequences already or just having niggling back / joint pain. A lot of otherwise healthy adults and children have also been found to have low D levels in blood – setting them up for an unhealthy future.

             So how can you guarantee adequate Vitamin D levels in your body? Get your serum D3 levels checked. If deficient, supplementation is key – under your doctor's guidance of course. Especially if already suffering from it's impacts on your health.

Unfortunately, foods are not a great source of this vitamin. Some foods that are relatively higher in D content......
-   Fatty fish – Raawas (salmon), Bangda (mackerel), Chura (tuna), Bhing (herring), Mathimeen (sardines)
-   Dairy – milk and cheese
-        Egg yolks
-        Mushrooms (few varieties like Shiitake)
-        Cod Liver Oil

       For vegetarians, the options are pretty slim – cheese, mushrooms and cod liver oil supplements. For even meat eaters, food intake can contribute only a maximum of ten percent of our requirement – so the main source is still sunshine.

 The Root Causes.......We Indians are complexion-conscious and don't wish to be tanned so we use sunscreen – an additional concern may be skin cancer which of course is relevant but we needn't shy away from sunshine for fear of it. Also, more worryingly, many doctors in India are recommending supplementation without really dealing with the basic issue of sun exposure. The concept of food fortification with D hasn't taken off in India the way it is in the West.

The Reality.........Our country mostly lies below the 35 degree latitude line, towards the equator. We get enough UV B radiation from the sun almost the whole year. This is a sunshine vitamin and our bodies are capable of producing it! The focus should be on how to empower our skin to make more than enough for our needs, not solely rely on artificial supplementation.

       The Final Prescription:
     
       Go out in the sun every other day without sunscreen for at least 15 minutes (or less if your skin burns easily). If you have a dark complexion, 20 minutes. Make this a conscious, regular practice – otherwise it will go the way of other healthy habits you started...and stopped. A sign that your skin is absorbing the UV B rays is a slight pinkish hue (erythema) developing. Stay in the sun for at least 5 to 10 minutes after your skin turns pinkish. Make sure you expose your arms, hands, neck, face and feet if not more. This ensures production of the amount you'll need for a couple of days as well as creating a store for future use. Finally 3 or 4 times a week, every week is what you should be aiming at.

       Ensure your whole family does the same – encourage your kids to take up out door games and activities. Many schools in urban centres don't have any playground area....  this means kids have to be indoors all day – if this sounds like your child's school – ensure their sun exposure yourself. If your child's school has time dedicated to outdoor play, no need to worry – but check that it is not excessive and does not occur at the hottest time of the day or else your child could wind up with dehydration or sun stroke.

       If you live in India, stock up on sunshine in spring, summer and autumn months. In winter, except for cloudy, foggy and smoggy days, you should be able to catch some rays during peak daylight hours. Take supplements only with your doctors consent and only in the dosage recommended.

       Interesting Facts :
-        Of the different types of radiation from the sun – the specific wavelength of Ultra Violet 'B' rays are required for Vit D production
-        7-dehydrocholesterol and ergosterol are the 2 precursors of D found in skin. On receiving UV B radiation, they form Vitamin D3 which then travels first to the liver and then the kidney to finally become the active form that the body uses.
-        Using sunscreen reduces absorption of UV B by as much as 95% on that patch of skin
-        Best time for sun exposure is between 10am to 3 pm, even on cloudy days
-        Exposing arms, hands, feet, neck and face to the sun means around 25% of your skin's surface is soaking the rays.
-        UV B rays don't pass through glass or clothes!
-        While Vitamin D toxicity is possible through irresponsible supplementation, the body has a natural control mechanism for Vitamin D produced by skin so that this can never cause toxicity
-        Vitamin D is used in the treatment of Tuberculosis. It also has anti-inflammatory effects in the body.

-        Activated Vitamin D can only be stored in the body for a couple of weeks, which is why you need regular sun exposure.

An edited version of this article was published in the January 2014 issue of Parent Circle...screenshots below



Wednesday, December 09, 2015

Making Peanut Butter at Home (And Lessons Learnt)

Hurrah for small victories. I've been adventuring along on a journey of tickling my 2 year old son's taste buds with organic, healthy ingredients. He's at that age where he's hungry every 20 minutes and fruits / milk / veggie portions (usually reserved for meals) every time is just not cutting it. I figured peanut butter can be used to make fudge, cookies, bliss balls, etc

So the victory was with peanut butter --- this recipe. I had made it ages ago successfully and my impression was that it was a pretty basic process. Just roast the groundout, then grind till creamy. Add a little salt and honey and voilĂ ........ except it didn't happen... just peanut powder and nothing but after ten minutes of grinding. I thought that was as far as we would get with our current 'mixie', a standard in every Indian kitchen.

My husband's Mother never gives up..... she went online searched forums and finally found the answer......don't quit. Grind till you get the creamy texture.... it will do so eventually. So we ran the mixie on top speed till that happened......a few lessons: Never give up, don't remove the healthful groundnut skin, the heat generated from running at top speed also helps the oils release and start the creaminess, keep scraping the sides and bottom of the bowl between grinding cycles and finally, it won't taste the same as the stuff found in stores but that's a really good thing.

Message to the eaters of the food made by the masters of the kitchen: When you keep comparing food made at home to the ready-made stuff or restaurant food..... you are giving the morale of the adventurous soul who made this for you an almost physical blow.

Seriously, did we just spend a lot of time  and labour just to hear you say "but it isn't the same as  _________(insert product name here)"? Did it occur to you that perhaps we don't even care what you think because we're so proud of our effort and it tastes just fine too?

Message to the masters of their kitchen:
The whole point of recreating a dish from a known point of reference is that you are now able to make a much healthier version which will nourish those eating it. 

     Yes, this is the first time you made it and you've made notes on how to tweak it the next time. Yes, it should ultimately be eaten and liked but that will have as much to do with their firmly-held perspectives as it will be about texture, taste and mouth-feel. The onus is on you (it's unfair but so is life;) to say this out loud to the ones you love...."I made this so that you could enjoy a food that you crave in a healthier form. It is guaranteed to taste different because it has less salt / sugar / fat and zero chemical and non-food ingredients. Any comparison is redundant because, again, the original and my 'knock-off' do not contain the same quality of ingredients. Can you live with that?" Educate the people you cook for and stand up for yourself and your creations.




Edible Gold



     What are some of the aromas triggered by oranges and yellows? The citrus tang of an orange, the fresh scent of a lemon, the mouth-watering sweetness of a mango? Doing our vegetable and fruit shopping may have become a routine chore. 
   
     We might be limiting our selections to just staples keeping everyone’s likes / dislikes in mind. The pitfall in shopping this way is that we often miss out on rediscovering old favourites, experimenting with new veggies and fruits and of course the nutrients they contain. 

     There are many constraints, some people may argue…..whoever cooks might complain that other household members are fussy eaters; there isn’t enough time to experiment; trying new foods or recipes is too much effort, etc. 

     What if every visit to the vegetable aisle was filled with wonder, excitement and curiosity? The following paragraphs make a case for venturing adventurously into the land of golden hued foods.

     Phytochemicals are molecules present throughout the cells of plants, imparting colour and more importantly, beneficial biochemical properties to them. There are literally hundreds if not thousands of phytochemicals of which only a small percentage have actually been investigated. 

     Yellows and Oranges have a few known nutrients in common. Carotenoids are the name for a class of compounds which serve the human body as powerful antioxidants. Some Carotenoids which impart those exciting colours are Alpha and BetaCarotene, Lutein, Zeaxanthin and Betacryptoxanthin. A diet rich in these Carotenoids has been linked to reduced risk of heart disease and certain cancers. Alpha and Beta carotene as well as Beta cryptoxanthin can be converted into Vitamin A which in turn is responsible eye health, immunity, red blood cell production and growth and development. Lutein and Zeaxanthin are critical to protect the retina in our eyes from sunlight induced oxidative damage.

     Apart from Carotenoids, several other phytochemicals and nutrients are common in this colour band….Folate, Vitamin C, Potassium and VitaminE. Folate is a B Vitamin which is critical during pregnancy for the proper development of the foetus. Under normal conditions this nutrient is vital for healthy gene expression and lowered risk for heart disease. Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant which also is essential in tissue building. Potassium is an electrolyte necessary for nerve impulse transmission, muscle contractions and maintenance of heart beat.

     Vitamin E plays a role in protecting lipids in blood from being oxidized, thereby reducing heart attack risk. This is just a summary of their functions…. Actually scientific studies just touch the tip of the iceberg in terms of how these nutrients and photochemical contribute to our health.
The best part is, we don’t really need to know! The knowledge that they benefit us is actually enough. This information gives you an insight into how necessary highly coloured foods are as a part of our daily diet. Just think of how 5-7 serving of fruit and vegetables a day can boost your all-round health.

FOR THE VEGGIES……

      Please consume raw as far as possible. But if it needs cooking, steaming and sautĂ©ing are the best methods for all vegetables in general and oranges and yellows in particular since they are generally soft and easily cooked. The vitamin loss is greater if you pressure cook, boil in high heat, roast and bake. Doing without these cooking methods entirely may not be possible but do keep in mind that our main reason for eating anything actually should be for our body’s benefit.

Maximize nutritional benefits by these additional tips…….
-          - Select the freshest only in the quantity you need.
-          - While cooking, chop into larger pieces to minimize nutrient loss
-          - Use medium to high heat for a shorter duration and add minimal water while cooking to activate the carotenoids in veggies and release them from the cellular matrix.
-          - The softer the veggie after cooking, the more the nutrient loss. Develop a taste for cooked but crisp veggies and educate family members (or else you may end up with ‘uncooked’ complaints).
-          - Storing for days in the fridge diminishes the nutritional value.
-          - Don’t shy away from adding healthy, cold – pressed organic oils to yellows and oranges to ensure absorption of the fat soluble nutrients.
        
         So how many in the list do you buy regularly already? Which new fruit or veggie will you try next? Combine golden fruits or vegetables and get a carotene boost or mix them with other colours and do share your results (and pictures) with us.

        An edited version of this article was published in the September 2014 issue of Parent Circle.....